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Abbas 2 Hilmi Pasha
Arabic: ¢abbās hilmiyy bāshā



Khedive Abbas 2 Hilmi Pasha

(1974-1944) Last khedive of Egypt 1892-1914.
Abbas 2 earned much popularity among Egyptians and the nationalist movement for the opposition to the British influence over Egypt he exercised in the early years of his reign.
But as with rulers before him, he realized that his position was too weak to survive without some cooperation with the British. The extent of this varied through his reign, but when he gave his support to the Ottoman Empire, calling for opposition to the British in the beginning of World War 1, his days were counted.

Biography
1874 July 14: Born in Alexandria, Egypt, as son of Tawfiq Pasha, who would become khedive of Egypt in 1879.
— Spends many of his young years in Europe, receiving a European style education.
1892 January 7: Tawfiq and Abbas 2 succeeds him as khedive. Abbas 2 tries soon to liberate himself from the British control exercised by the British consul general in Egypt, Lord Cromer.
1894: Abbas 2 criticizes the actions of the British troops stationed in Egypt. Lord Cromer reacts by imposing strict regulations on Abbas 2's freedom to act.
1898: Egypt reconquers Sudan.
1900: Pays a visit to Britain. During this we praised Britain for her acts in Egypt, and declared great willingness to cooperate with the British officials administering Egyptian affairs.
1906: The Egyptian nationalists call for the establishment of a constitutional government. Abbas 2 rejects.
1907: Abbas 2 allows the formation of the National Party under the leadership of Mustafa Kamil, as an act of creating a counterbalance to the British.
1911: As Lord Kitchener is appointed consul general, he introduces regulations which strongly reduces Abbas 2 freedom to act independently.
1914: With the outbreak of World War 1, Abbas 2 gives his support to the Ottoman Empire.
December 18: A British a protectorate for Egypt is established.
December 19: Abbas 2 is deposed, and replaced by Hussein Kamil, his uncle.
1922: Egypt is declared independent, and Abbas 2 is stripped for all rights to the throne.
—, He passes the rest of his life in exile, mainly in Switzerland.
1944 December 20: Dies in Geneva, Switzerland.




By Tore Kjeilen