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Islam
INTRODUCTION
1. Orientations
a. Figures
2. Koran
3. Theology
4. Concept of divine
5. Sharia
6. Muhammad
7. Cult and Festivals
8. Mecca
9. Cultic personalities
10. Caliph
11. Structures
12. Popular religion
13. Others
14. Calendar



























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Islam / Caliph / Umayyads /
Abd al-Malik
Arabic: ¢abdu l-malik bni marwān


(646-705) Caliph of Sunni Islam 685-705, as part of the Umayyad Dynasty.
Under Abd al-Malik the Muslim world was largely united. This was the result of well-conducted military campaign against rebels, but also as Abd al-Malik was a devout and pious Muslim, many of those opposing the Umayyads, closed ranks with his regime.
Abd al-Malik was a strong and forceful ruler, a great judge of character and with a balanced mind. He ruled the empire according to his own will, and did not consult a shura, council, as earlier caliphs had done.
Abd al-Malik introduced Arabic as the administrative language for all of the empire. He also introduced a common currency. He also repaired the Ka'ba of Mecca. It is also under Abd al-Malik that the construction of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem was started.
During his regime, the religion of Islam was promoted to non-Muslims living in the empire, and many converted. But the privileges the original Arab Muslims.

Biography
646: Born as son of Marwan 1, future caliph.
— Works for his father, who had been appointed governor of Madina.
685: His father dies, and as arranged in advance, Abd al-Malik becomes new caliph. he immediately embarked on conquering Muslim territory under the rebel caliphate of Abdullah bni Zubayr.
688 or 689: Launches a campaign to conquer more territory in North Africa.
691: Takes control over northern Syria and Mesopotamia, where northern Arab tribes and their leader Zufar since long had challenged the Umayyad caliphs.
692: Defeats and has rebel caliph Abullah bni Zubayr killed, thereby taking control over the heartlands of the Muslim world.
697: Final defeat of the Kharijis of Persia by the leadership of Governor al-Hajjaj, which had been one of the main challengers to the caliphate.
— Conquers Carthage, the Byzantine stronghold and administrative centre. Tunis is established as the new capital of the region.
705 May: Abdulaziz, the brother of Abd al-Malik and heir to the caliphate, dies. Abd al-Malik appoints 3 of his children as successors.
October: Dies, and is succeeded by his son al-Walid 1.




By Tore Kjeilen