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Ancient Iran / Elam /
Other spelling: Anzan

In Ancient Iran, one of the capitals of Elam back in the 3rd millennium BCE, and became the first capital of Persia from the 7th century BCE.
It is located to central-southern Iran, some 30 km northwest of modern Shiraz. Today, there is only the small village of Tal-e Malyan.
One definition of the geography of Elam, makes it corresponding with Anshan, hence that Anshan is the heartland of Elam.
Distant from Susa, Anshan's local rulers were at times highly independent. At periods, local rulers would rise to challenge the position of Susa.
Anshan was located in 1961. The site is about 2 km². more than half is a 4 to 6 metre high mound. Around the city are the remains of a 5 km long wall.
In Persian times, Anshan became the capital of an empire that would even conquer Egypt. Yet, finds here are modest compared to other imperial cities. The case with Cyrus 2 casts light on the mechanisms of the empire; conquests were not called new lands of Anshan, rather new territory of the king.

2061 BCE: We hear about the king of Ur sending out a unitive campaign against Anshan.
Around 1500: Rulers of Elam start using the title "King of Anshan and Susa".
7th century: Anshan ruler, Achaemenes, establishes an effective kingdom here. From him, the Achaemenid Dynasty is defined.
6th century: Local Anshan rulers start conquering other Iranian lands, thereby begining what became the Persian Empire. Kings here call themselves kings of Anshan.
522: Cambyses 2 dies, him being the last king to use the title "king of Anshan".

By Tore Kjeilen