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Islam / Sharia / Fiqh /
Bid'a
Arabic: bid¢a
Other spelling: Bid'ah



Sharia
Madhhab
Schools, or directions of Sharia.
Hanafi
Hanbali
Maliki
Shafi'i
All above are Sunni.
Jafari
Shi'i school.

Sources
Sunna
Hadith
Isnad
Sira

Fiqh
Methods of Sharia.
Qiyas
Ijma
Ijtihad
Ra'y
Bid'a

In Islam, innovation or novelty without roots in the traditional practice, sunna. In the modern context, bid'a is usually employed as a negative term, representing a deviation from the accepted form of Islam, and is usually held up as the opposite of sunna.
But many characteristics of Islam are bid'a. The establishment of law schools, the study of the hadiths, the dotting of the letters in the Koran, the building of religious schools and adding the minaret to the mosque, are all central elements for which there are is no basis in the Koran or the sunna.
Early on, a bid'a would be defined according to its qualities, ranging from "good" to "bad." The legal scholar, Shafi'i, identified good bid'as as as not diverging from the regulations as understood by the Koran and the hadiths. Some of the bid'as which were originally disapproved of, like and ornamentation of mosques and decoration of the Koran, have since long become intrinsic to Islam, even with the Khariji offspring branch of the Ibadis.
Bid'a was an important theological factor in the earliest times of Islam, when still many of the Muslim institutions we know today were not yet in place, the Koran not yet compiled and codified, fiqh and Muslim Law not yet developed. This period saw many degrees of dogmatic variations and innovations among different Muslim groups. Bid'a came by many to be defined as a negative and unacceptable form of dissent and independence.
Bid'a may come close to heresy, but while bid'a is considered as a form of confusion and lack of insight, heresy is considered obstinate opposition to Islam.
Bid'a in an accepted form will need some sort of the validity that comes with the techniques of ijma and ijtihad. The actual content of ijma and ijtihad may be termed bid'a.




By Tore Kjeilen