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162 BCE-72 CE162 BCE-72 CE

Ancient World /

Sames 1 Ca. 290-ca. 260 BCE
Arsames Ca. 260-ca. 228
Xerxes Ca. 228-ca. 201
Ptolemy Ca. 201-162
(Changing from satrap to king)
Sames 2 130-109
Mithridates 1 109-86
Antiochus 1 86-38
Mithridates 2 38-20
Antiochus 2 29
Mithridates 3 20-12
Antiochus 3 12 BCE-17 CE
Under direct Roman rule 17-38
Antiochus 4 38-72

Kingdom of southeastern Anatolia, lasting from 162 BCE-72 CE, altogether 234 years, although the for the latter 55 years it was more or less under the control of Rome.
The kingdom was small in territory, perhaps only covering 150 km length from southwest to northeast. It was bounded by Cilicia to the west and Cappadocia to the north. The eastern border was the Euphrates River. The population cannot be set, and it may have been as little as 100,000 living in the kingdom. Judging from limited information in the sources, the economy was mainly been based on trade and agriculture.
Commagene appears to have benefitted from its strategic position between the Roman Empire and the Parthian Empire of Persia.
The capital was Samosata, modern Samsat, Turkey.
The religion was Zoroastrianism, but the national variant became influenced by Hellenism, making divine representations appear in the shape of Hellenistic statues. Wine was used in rituals.
Nemrut Mountain at 2150 metres holds a religious complex of much interest, built by King Antiochus 1 in the 1st century BCE. The complex holds a central statue of the king, a reflection of his belief that he was equal to the gods, at least upon the moment of his death.

745: Urartu takes control of Commagene, subjugating King Kushtashpi.
708 BCE: Commagene is annexed by Assyria.
162: The Commagene governor, Ptolemy, exploits the disintegration of the Seleucid Empire, and declares his province independent.
38: King Antiochus 1 is removed from his throne by the Romans; a response to his alliance with the Parthian Dynasty.
17 CE: Commagene is made a Roman client state.
38: Antiochus 4, son of Roman Emperor, Caligula, is made king of Commagene.
72: Commagene is destroyed during the Jewish War, by Roman Emperor, Vespasian. It becomes part of the Roman province of Syria.

By Tore Kjeilen