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Byzantine Empire /
Constantine 4
Greek: Konstantinos

(652-685) Byzantine emperor 668-685.
He was an able leader, involved in a number of battles on all fronts. He lost substantial territory in southeastern Europe to the Bulgars, but became the first Byzantine ruler to truly defeat the Arab Muslims.
With him ended some of the most disturbing conflicts in early Christianity, what concerned the nature and will of Christ (for nature see Monophysitism, for will see Monothelitism). This happened from two reasons; 6th ecumenical Council of Constantinople effectively ended several debates, and most of the regions where orientations away from the official view dominated were now under Muslim rulers.

652: Born as the eldest son of Emperor Constans 2.
654: Is appointed co-emperor.
668 September 15: Becomes emperor following the murder of his father. He faces both a military revolt in Sicily and Arab Muslim attacks.
669: After 7 months, the revolt in Sicily is suppressed.
— Arab Muslim attacks Carthage and Sicily.
670: Arab Muslims conquer Cyzicus (close to modern Bandirma, Turkey) immediately south from Constantinople across the Sea of Marmara.
672: Coastal cities, among them Smyrna (modern Izmir, Turkey), conquered by the Arab Muslims.
674: Arabs make a siege on Constantinople.
678: The Byzantines manage to crush the Arab Muslims, setting their fleet on fire. This ended the attack on Constantinople; this success would give new belief in the ability to withstand Muslim aggression on the Christian world.
— Arab Muslims driven out of Lycia in Asia Minor.
680: Bulgars enter the imperial territory, and would within a year establish their kingdom independent from, yet demanding an annual tribute from the Byzantines.
— Summons the 6th ecumenical Council of Constantinople, where Monothelitism is condemned, and the validity of the theology of the Council of Chalcedon affirmed.
681: Has two brothers mutilated, both having been crowned emperor, making them ineligible to rule. Instead his son, Justinian 2, would become heir to the throne.
685 September: Dies of dysentery, and is succeeded by Justinian 2.

By Tore Kjeilen