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Ancient Sudan / Nubia /
Other spelling: Kush

Cush: Deffufa of Kerma

Deffufa of Kerma.

Cush: Pyramids of MeroŽ

Pyramids of MeroŽ.

Cush: Stele possibly of King Nedjeh

Stele, possibly of King Nedjeh.

Cush: King Semkanisken

King Semkanisken

Cush: From temple at Musawwarat al-Sufra

From temple at Musawwarat al-Sufra.

Years are approximate and BCE
Alara Around 780
Kashta Ca. 760-747
Piy 747-716
Shabaqo 716-707
Shabitqo 707-690
Taharqa 690-664
Tanutanami 664-653
Atlanersa 653-643
Senkamanisken 643-623
Anlamani 623-593
At MeroŽ
Aspelta 593-568
Amtalqa 568-555
Malenaqen 555-542
Analmaye 542-538
Amaninatakilebte 538-519
Karkamani 519-510
Amaniastabarqa 510-487
Siaspiqa 487-468
Nasakhma 468-463
Malewiebamani 463-435
Talakhamani 435-431
Amanineteyerike 431-405
Baskakeren 405-404
Harsiotef 404-369
Unknown 369-350
Akhraten 350-335
Nastasen 335-ca. 310
Aktisanes Ca. 310-270
Arkamaniqo 270-260
Amanislo 260-250
Aman-tekha 250-235
Arnekhamani 235-218
Arqamani 218-200
Tabriqo 200-190
Unknown 190-185
Unknown 185-170
Shanakdakhete 170-150
Unknown 150-130
Naqyrinsan 130-110
Tanyidamani 110-90
Unknown 90-50
Amanikhabale 50-40
Teriteqas 40-10
Amanishakheto 10-0
Years CE, still approximate
Natakamani 0-20
Shorkaror 20-30
Pisakar 30-40
Amanitaraqide 40-50
Amanitenmemide 50-62
Amanikhatashan 62-85
Teritnide 85-90
Teqerideamani 1 90-114
Adeqetali 134-140
Takideamani 140-155
Tarekeniwal 155-170
Amanikhalika 170-175
Aritenyesbokhe 175-190
Amanikhareqerem 190-200
Teritedakhatey 200-215
Aryesbokhe 215-225
Unknown 225-246
Teqerideamani 2 246-266
Maleqorobar 266-283
Yesbokheamani 283-300
Unknown queen 300-308
Amanipilade 308-20
Unknown 320-?
Ancient kingdoms of Nubia, in today's northern Sudan.
At its earliest stages, Cush emerged from the town of Kerma, several hundred kilometres downstream from the later centres at Napata, and even few hundred kilometres more from the last centre at MeroŽ.
At this time in history, there may well have been several, smaller kingdoms, but Kerma, just below the 3rd cataract, was at the kingdom that the kings of Egypt's Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom met in their expeditions up the Nile River, and therefore recorded in history.
Cush would early in the New Kingdom come under Egypt. Towards the end of the New Kingdom, in the 11th century BCE, Lower Nubia may have become depopulated, eventually making it impossible for Egypt to exercise control over all of Nubia.
A new Cushite kingdom emerged during Egypt's Third Intermediate Period, and would eventually conquer all of Egypt in the 8th century BCE, before being forced out in the 7th century.
In the 6th century BCE, the Cushites were forced to move their capital to MeroŽ, where the kingdom flourished until the 1st or 2nd century CE, and ended around 350 CE.
Across many accounts, there is some confusion with terms. 'Cush' is mixed with 'Nubian', and 'Napata' may even be used in place of the two first.
For full treatment on society, see article on Nubia. For religion, see article on Ancient Nubian religion.

2400 BCE: A kingdom known as Cush emerges located to Kerma.
20th century: Egypt makes advances south of the 1st cataract, touching the regions of the Cushites. The Egyptians build a number of fortresses to defend their presence.
Around 1500: End of the kingdom of Cush at Kerma. Much of the territory becomes an Egyptian colony under Tuthmosis 1, who also orders fortresses to be built.
1070: Egyptian control of Nubia is lost; Egypt enters the Third Intermediate Period. There is practically no information about the next 2 to 3 centuries in Cushite history.
Early 8th century: Lower Nubia is united by Alara.
770:Kashta, Alara successor, unites Upper and Lower Nubia.
Around 750: Kashta attacks Upper Egypt, taking control of Thebes. He installs his sister as second in line for the office of God's wife of Amon, which would soon emerge to replace the office of High Priest of Amon.
730: Cushite king, Piy, leads a northbound campaign that reach as far north as Memphis, but he did not proceed into the Nile Delta, thereby allowing the 22nd Dynasty rulers of Lower Egypt to remain in power.
716: New Cushite king, Shabaqo, takes effective and official control over Egypt.
671: King Taharqa is defeated by the Assyrians and driven out of Lower Egypt.
669: King Taharqa returns to reconquer territory as far north as Memphis.
667: A new Assyrian campaign drives the Cushites out of Middle Egypt.
664: New Cushite king, Tanutanami sends a campaign up the Nile river, but is soon driven back by Assyrian troops.
656: Upper Egypt is taken by the Egyptians. Thebes, the capital of the region, gives in without resistance, a reflection of Cushite control having been lost since long time.
591: Egyptian king, Psametik 2, invades Cush, and destroys Napata.
580's: Cushite king, Aspelta, relocates Cushite royal court to MeroŽ.
23: MeroŽ barely escapes a Roman invasion, in which Napata is sacked.
Around 350 CE: Cush comes to an end. It is either conquered and destroyed by Axum (modern Ethopia), or there is an invasion by other Sudanese peoples.

By Tore Kjeilen