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Ancient Egypt
1. Introduction
2. People
3. Life styles
4. Culture
5. Education and Science
6. Society
7. Economy
8. Government
9. Cities and Villages
10. Language
11. Religion
12. Kings / periods
13. History
14. Map

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Open map of Ancient EgyptAncient Egypt / Late Period /
31st Dynasty

Years BCE
Artaxerxes 3 343-332
Arses 338-336
Darius 3 336-332
Pherdates 343?-338?
Sabaces 338?
Mazaeus 338?-332

Dynasty of Ancient Egypt 343-332 BCE, 11 years, consisting of 3 kings, belonging to the Late Period.
In reality, Egypt was in this period a province under the Persian Achaemenid Dynasty, and the king list is identical to Persia's for this period. At several occasions, Persian troops were sent to Egypt to loot the country.
This period began with Artaxerxes 3 driving the Egyptian king, Nectanebo 2, into exile. Egypt was put under the administration of a Persian satrap, but it is not known who was the first among them. The first recorded was Pherdates, who may have been the first. The next recorded is Sabaces, ruling either for less than a year, or possibly for years. He was succeeded by Mazaces, who also would become the last. In 332, Egypt was surrendered peacefully to Alexander the Great. He too, arranged Egypt into a satrapy.
As an illustration of the fragility of this period, between 338 and 335, it seems that the country was under the control of a Nubian prince, Khabbash.
This is the last period defined as a "dynasty" of Anceint Egypt, but this definition is mainly an illustration of how difficult it is to distinugish when transitions come slowly. The next period, called Ptolemaic Period, could very well have been defined as a dynasty too. And an Egypt ruled from Persia, really doesn't qualify the 31st Dynasty as a dynasty at all.

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By Tore Kjeilen