Iraq / Politics /
King Faisal 1
faysalu bni hussayni l-hāshim
(1885-1933) King of Iraq from 1921-1933.
As king of Iraq, Faisal maintained a politics of moderating conflicting elements. He kept up his good relationship with the British, while strengthening his position as an Arab leader.
1885 May 20: Born in Mecca, Arabia as third son of Hussein bni Ali, king of Hijaz.
Around 1900: Lives in Constantinople, where his father is kept under surveillance.
1908: Returns to Mecca with his father, who is appointed governor of Mecca. Faisal works closely with his father in the administration.
1915: Travels to Damascus in order to secure support from Arab nationalists.
1916: Leads an Arab revolt in Hijaz against the Ottomans, resulting in independence for Hijaz. His father becomes king of Hijaz.
1917: Together with British troops, Faisal takes control over Transjordan.
1918: After conquering Damascus, he establishes an Arab government under the auspices of Allied forces.
1919: Under the Paris Peace Conference, Faisal claims the right to establish an Arab kingdom or a federation of Arab emirates, but has no success.
Faisal negotiates an agreement with the French, in which he allows them to take control over modern Lebanon and Syria.
1920 January: Faisal returns to Damascus.
March: Faisal is declared king of greater Syria (today's Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, and Palestine).
April: The French authorities are handed the mandate to administer Syria and Lebanon by the League of Nations.
July 14: Fights between French troops and the troops of Faisal result in Faisal's loss of Aleppo and Damascus. Faisal leaves Damascus and ends up in exile in Britain.
1921 March: As the British experience opposition to their presence in Iraq, they forge an agreement with Faisal, within which he will become king of the country, the British, however, maintaining its mandate. The agreement, however, provides for the eventual independence of Iraq.
August 23: Faisal is crowned as king of Iraq, a country where he is enthusiastically received by the people, by whom he is elected with 96% of the votes.
1923: Faisal is conferred the title of constitutional monarch by the national assembly of Iraq.
1930: Faisal signs an agreement with Britain, which is intended to lead to the independence of Iraq. The agreement provides that British troops can still be stationed in Iraq, and it binds Faisal to coordinate his foreign policy with the British political line.
1932 October 3: Iraq becomes independent and enters the League of Nations.
1933 September 8: Faisal dies in Bern, Switzerland. He is followed by his son, Ghazi.