In Iraq, Syria and Turkey, dynasty in the 10th century CE.
Coin of Nasir ad-Dawla al-Hassan.
The Hamdanids were Shi'i Muslims, and their taking of Aleppo became decisive in the formation of Alawism.
The Hamdanids shifted between being governors subject to the Caliph, and independent emirs, but never formed a lasting state. In the middle of the 10th century, there were two Hamdanid rulers, one in Mosul and one in Aleppo.
The Hamdanid territory covered northeastern Syria, northwestern Iraq, called Jazirah, and parts of southwest Turkey.
Ca. 890: Hamdan ibn Hamdun is appointed governor of Mardin (now Turkey) by the Abbasid caliph, Harun ar-Rashid.
904: Hamdan's son Abdallah is appointed governor of Mosul.
929: Abdallah's son, Nasir ad-Dawla al-Hassan starts acting independently from the caliph, taking control over lands in northern Syria.
944: Hamdanid prince Sayf ad-Dawla takes Aleppo and Homs, making it capital of what established as an independent emirate. His period would be one of prosperity and culture, in particular literature.
974: Aleppo is lost to the Byzantines.
987: Aleppo is taken back by the Hamdanids, but they enter a pact with the Fatimid rulers of Cairo.
979: Mosul is lost to the Buyids.
1004: The Fatimids have the Hamdanid rulers replaced.