Other spellings: Hattuşaş; Hattusa; Khattusas
Hattusha was an imperial capital from about 1680 until 1193 BCE, less than 500 years. Strong state formations of the Hittites lasted until 710, but now Carchemish had replaced Hattusha as the strong city of the region.
Its modern location is in north-central Turkey, close to the modern village of Bogazkale, which has between 2,000 and 3,000 inhabitants. 35 km southeast is Yozgat while Ankara is about 170 km west.
The location of Hattusha is curious, while all major capitals throughout history were at the most central location possible, Hattusha was in all ways remote. But, the actual remoteness may have been its most important quality. Any advancing army would waste their strength long before arriving here. The city itself was built on a natural fortress, on a mountain slope, between two deeply cut riverbeds.
The city location benefitted from plentiful of water, a surrounding region of rich agriculture, good condition for livestock raising and forests. From the agriculture all basic foods was provided, linen could be harvested but wool from sheep was the most important source for clothing. The forests provided necessary timber both for housing and the construction of many forms of military equipment.
Hattusha was protected by city walls following the natural fortress of the mountain. The city was about 2 km from north to south, and 1.2 km east to west. Hattusha had two circles of city walls, the inner section was made up by a citadel, administrative buildings and temples.
The Great Temple is presently the largest structure. It dates back to the 14th century BCE, and was dedicated to the storm god, Teshuba, and sun goddess, Hebut. The temple proper is built according to universal principles, with sections of increasing sanctity and with an open courtyard. Around it were built 78 storage rooms after an irregular plan (see Hittite religion).
The main city and the residential quarters rest together south of the fortified inner city. Two stone lions and two sphinxes protect each their city gate, a third gate is noted for a relief figure of the god Teshuba, still it is called King's Gate.
Among the most important discoveries at Hattusha has been the royal archives of clay tablets, with inscriptions in cuneiform. One of the tablets contain details of the peace settlement between the Hittites and the Egyptians from the early 13th century BC.