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Open map of Saudi ArabiaFlag of Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia / Geography /
Hijaz
Other spelling: Hejaz
Arabic: 'al-hijāz





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Hijaz

Ancient tombs in Hijaz. Photo: Dorothy Miller/Saudi Aramco
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Ancient tombs in Hijaz. Photo: Dorothy Miller/Saudi Aramco

Hijaz, Saudi Arabia

Mountains of Hijaz. Photo: S. M. Amin/Saudi Aramco
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Mountains of Hijaz. Photo: S. M. Amin/Saudi Aramco

Mountain pass near At-Ta'if
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Mountain pass near At-Ta'if

Region and province in western Saudi Arabia, comprising the cities of Mecca and Madina, Jeddah and At Ta'if.
The region is defined by the Red Sea region of the Arabian peninsula, ending with the mountains in the south where Yemen begins. Hijaz neighbours Najd to the east, the other major region of modern Saudi Arabia. Tihamah in the south is defined by the mountains.
The land of Hijaz is between 800,000 and 900,000 km². It has no permenent rivers or lakes, and the highest point is the Sawdah mountain, 2910 metres.
The land of Hijaz is dominated by arid plateaus, sandy to stony deserts with fertile oases. Hijaz is known for known for its darker, more volcanic sand.
Only briefly has Hijaz formed political unities, it has been part of larger empires, the caliphate, Egypt, the Ottoman Empire.

History
1258: Hijaz comes under Egyptian rule.
1517: Surrendered to the Ottoman Empire.
1916: The establishment of an independent kingdom under the name Hijaz.
1926: Hijaz is conquered by the neighbouring Kingdom of Najd.
1932: Becomes part of Saudi Arabia.




By Tore Kjeilen