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Islam
INTRODUCTION
1. Orientations
a. Figures
2. Koran
3. Theology
4. Concept of divine
5. Sharia
6. Muhammad
7. Cult and Festivals
8. Mecca
9. Cultic personalities
10. Caliph
11. Structures
12. Popular religion
13. Others
14. Calendar



























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Islam / Caliph / Umayyads /
Hisham
Arabic: hishāmi bni ¢abdi l-malīk


(691-743) Caliph of Sunni Islam 723-743, belonging to the Umayyad Dynasty.
Hisham is considered to have been a good ruler, who dealt with the many real and possible problems of the empire. His main challenges were in the Muslim heartlands, dealing with the strong Arab tribes and factions of the Umayyad family. He managed to involve these in the administration, and was able to keep the empire united and strong through his 20 year long reign.
Yet, one power was developing apart from his ability to curtail it. The Abbasids were gaining more and more power in Khurasan and Mesopotamia.
He strengthened control over the Indian territories. He sent a campaign to France, but it was defeated before it even approached Paris. He put an end to years of Berber rebellion in North Africa.
It appears as if he managed to increase the tax revenues paid to the central administration, and he had the system for agricultural taxation reformed. He built a great number of castles and palaces in Syria. In religious matters he was conservative and rather zealous.

Biography
691: Born in Damascus, the son of Caliph Abd al-Malik.
743 February 6: Dies in Damascus, and is succeeded by his nephew, Walid 2.




By Tore Kjeilen