Bookmark and Share



























Open the online Arabic language course






Ibrahim Pasha



Statue of Ibrahim Pasha in front of the Military Museum, Cairo

(1789-1848) Egyptian general, governor of Syria, 1831-1841, regent for Muhammad Ali for a few months in 1848.
Ibrahim was perhaps 19th century Egypt's finest general, fighting successfully in Arabia, Sudan, Greece, (modern) Turkey, Syria and Palestine. He advanced a few reforms within the Egyptian army, among which training according to European models was the most influential.
During his years as the governor of Syria, he created a consultative council of notables and suppressed the feudal regime, but used harsh means to drive his reforms through.
According to English officers who saw him in 1828, Ibrahim was short, fat and scarred by smallpox, quite the opposite of the statue of him in Cairo (see photo).

Biography
1789: Born in Kavalla, Rumelia, now Kavála, Greece.
— At some point adopted by Muhammad Ali.
1816-1818: Leads the Egyptian troops challenging Wahhabi tribesmen in Arabia, destroying them as a political power.
1821-1822: Leads a mission into Sudan.
1824 July: Leads a campaign against a Greek rebellion against the Ottoman supremacy. Successful in the field, he was not able to gain control over the land, and retaliated heavily, enslaving thousands of Greeks deporting them to Egypt.
1828 October: Troops from Britain, Austria and France drive the troops of Ibrahim out of Greece.
1831: Muhammad Ali suspends his allegiance to the Ottoman sultan, and sends Ibrahim to invade Syria.
1832 December 21: Final victory over the Ottoman troops at Konya, gives Ibrahim control over Syria and Adana provinces.
1833 May 4: He signs an agreement with the Ottomans, making him governor-general over Syria and Adana, but still under the suzerainty of Muhammad Ali.
1838: A new conflict with the Ottoman Empire over Syria emerges, once again crowned with victory for Ibrahim.
1839: Haifa is captured by Ibrahim.
June 24: Ibrahim wins his greatest victory ever at Nizip, resulting in a total defeat for the Ottoman fleet.
1840: Jericho is razed by Ibrahim.
June: As European powers fear that the Ottoman Empire might disintegrate, they force Muhammad Ali to sign an agreement making him the hereditary ruler of Egypt. In return he has to give up Syria and Adana. Ibrahim would stay with his forces.
1841 February: British and Austrian forces drive Ibrahim out of Syria and Adana. Ibrahim returns to Cairo.
1848 July: Muhammad Ali is removed from office because of senility, and Ibrahim Pasha becomes acting regent.
November 10: Dies in Cairo.




By Tore Kjeilen