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Israel
INTRODUCTION
1. Geography
2. Political situation
3 Economy
a. Figures
4. Health
5. Education
a. Universities
6. Demographics
7. Religions
a. Freedom
8. Peoples
9. Languages
10. History
11. Cities and Towns



























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Index / Political situation /
Open map of IsraelFlag of IsraelIsrael /
Political situation



Prime Ministers
David Ben-Gurion 1948(9)-1953
Moshe Sharett 1954-1955
David Ben-Gurion 1955-1963
Levi Eshkol 1963-1969
Golda Meir 1969-1974
Yitzhak Rabin 1974-1977
Shimon Peres 1977
Menachim Begin 1977-1983
Yitzhak Shamir 1983-1984
Shimon Peres 1984-1986
Yitzhak Shamir 1986-1992
Yitzhak Rabin 1992-1995
Shimon Peres 1995-1996
Benjamin Netanyahu 1996-1999
Ehud Barak 1999-2001
Ariel Sharon 2001-(2005) 2006
Ehud Olmert 2006-
Presidents
Chaim Weizman 1948-1952
Isaak Ben Zwi 1952-1963
Salman Schazar 1963-1973
Ephraim Katzir 1973-1978
Yitzak Navon 1978-1983
Chaim Herzog 1983-1993
Ezer Weizman 1993-2000
Moshe Katzav 2000-

Constitution
There is no single constitution of Israel, rather a collection of primary and secondary laws. Almost all of these laws were issued from 1950 until 1953. The primary group includes Law of Return (1950), Nationality Law (1952), State President Law (1952), Education Law (1953), 'Yad-va-Shem' Memorial Law (1953).
The secondary group of laws include Law and Administration Ordinance (1948), Knesset Election Law (1951), Law of Equal Rights for Women (1951), Judges Act (1953), National Service and National Insurance Acts (1953) and Basic Law for Knesset (1958).

Political organization
Israel has three levels of political influence:

President
The president of Israel has little power, but serves as a symbolic and moral centre, and can in difficult times play an important role through his/her public statements.

Prime minister
The power of the prime minister is strengthened from May 1996 off, when Israel introduced a system of direct elections for prime minister. With the present system, the parliament, no longer has the right to remove a prime minister from office. However, an uncooperative parliament could leave the prime minister weak, as was the situation through 2000 for prime minister Ehud Barak. The American presidential system served to some extent as a pattern for the new system of Israel.

Parliament

The Knesset is unicameral, and has 120 members. There are a large number of parties represented, and the lower limit for representation here is 1,5% in the elections. With the new political system of Israel, the Knesset has less power than earlier, but retains direct control over a number of issues as well as budgetary matters.

General analysis
Israel is politically stable, but tensions are dividing the society. International support has weakened, due to brutal colonization of Palestinian territory. Israel has a large freedom of press, and with more than 25 newspapers the country has an open debate of central questions. Newspapers are issued in Hebrew (11), Arabic (4) and English, French, German, Hungarian, Romanian, Russian and Yiddish, all with 1 newspaper each. The largest newspapers are Yedioth Aharonoth with a circulation of about 300,000, M'ariv with about 200,000, Ha'aretz with about 70,000 and Al Quds in Arabic with 60,000
Israel has two court systems, civil and religious. Religious courts deal with central issues related to marriage and family.

Elections 2006
The clear winner of the 2006 elections was Kadima, the new party of Ariel Sharon, who spent most of the campaign and the election day itself in a coma. Likewise, the losers were Likud and Shinui, but Kadima was largely formed by prominent Likud members.
Kadima won 22% of the votes, gaining 29 seats (of 120); Labour Party 15%, 19 seats (losing 2); Shas 9.5%, 12 seats (gaining 1); Likud 9%, 12 seats (losing 15); Yisrael Beytenu 9%, 11 seats (gaining 8); National Union 7.1%, 9 seats (losing 1); Gil 5.9%, 7 seats (new party); United Torah Jerusalem 4.7%, 6 seats (gaining 1); Meretz-Yachad 3.8%, 5 seats (losing 1); United Arab List 3%, 4 seats (gaining 2).
Shinui, which had 15 seats in the former Knesset were almost wiped out, receiving only 4,900 votes.

History
2009 January 21: Two anti-Israeli Arab political parties originally banned from participating in February elections, have regained permission from Israeli Supreme Court.




By Tore Kjeilen