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Christianity / Orientations / Heresy /
Macedonianism
Also called: Pneumatomachian heresy


In Christianity, a sectarian doctrine (see heresy) belonging to the 4th century. Its existence was short, hardly more than 30 years.
Macedonianism had many similarities with Arianism, denying the full personality and divinity of the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit was defined as created by the Son and was thus subordinate to both the Father and the Son. In this, the essence of Jesus Christ was understood as similar to that of God the Father. Macedonianism represented an opposition to the concept of Trinity, which defined the Holy Spirit as a third person of God. Trinity was at this time a central part of Christian theology, yet controversial among many theologians.
The orientation took its name from Macedonius, who twice had been bishop of Constantinople. All writings of Macedonius have all been lost, but judging from available sources, his views were sympathetic to Arianism without being part of the Arian movement. Most probably, Macedonius did not form the movement, it was rather founded after his death, and based upon some of his doctrines.
Another name of the movement was Pneumatomachianism, meaning "spirit fighters".

History
Around 360: Bishop Macedonius dies.
360's: Emergence of Macedonianism.
381: First Council of Constantinople condemns Macedonianism as a heresy.
380's: Byzantine Emperor Theodosius 1 launches a suppression campaign against the Macedonianists.




By Tore Kjeilen