Other spelling: Mannea and Manni (Biblical)
In Ancient Iran, land of the Mannaeans, primarily thriving between 10th century BCE and 7th century BCE.
Their homeland were east and south of Orumiyeh lake. They formed settled societies, in villages and a few more sizeable towns. Sites located to the Mannai are the fortified town of Hasanlu and the site of Qalaichi, while Izirtu was the location of the king, but has yet to be identified. The economy was based upon irrigated agriculture and the breeding of cattle and horses.
The Mannaiian society was headed by a prominent aristocracy, from which the king derived his loyalty.
From the end of the 7th century, the Mannaeans became absorbed into the Matan people and would become an integrated part of Medes.
Middle 9th century BCE: Mannai begins to flourish, politically and culturally.
Around 800: Emergence of Urartu, which takes control over regions of Mannai, building forts.
Ca. 750: War begins between Urartu and Assyria, allowing Mannai to advance its territory.
Ca. 725: Mannai reaches its largest size.
716: Sargon 2 of Assyria attacks Mannai, conquering Izirtu, turning these parts of Mannai into permanent provinces of Assyria.
676: Rebellion from the Mannaeans against king Esarhaddon of Assyria, securing some Mannaiian advances.
660: The Mannaeans are heavily crushed by Assyria, but the kingdom is survives as a small entity.
616: Medes conquers and annexes Mannai.