Islam / Caliph / Umayyads /
marwān bni muhammadi bni marwān
(688-750) Caliph of Sunni Islam 744-750, as the last ruler of the Umayyad Dynasty.
Despite being the last ruler of the Umayyad Dynasty, ending his life being killed while trying to flee, Marwan was far from incompetent as a ruler. During his years as a military commander, he introduced many reforms that made the military more efficient. He replaced the system of divisions based on tribes with a system of small and paid units under professional command.
The Umayyad Empire had started falling apart long before Marwan became caliph.
688: Born, as grandson of former Caliph Marwan 1.
Serves as a military commander, reforming the organization of the army.
744: Caliph Ibrahim abdicates, and Marwan becomes new caliph.
746: Reconquer the remaining parts of Syria.
747: The Abbasid revolts starts, where the Umayyad forces face the Abbasids aided by Persians, Iraqis and Shi'is.
750: Final battle at the Great Zab River. The Umayyad troops are decisively defeated. almost 300 of the Umayyad family are killed. Abd ar-Rahman survives, and would reestablish the dynasty in Spain.
Marwan flees, but is captured while trying to cross the Nile of Egypt and is killed.