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Oman
INTRODUCTION
1. Geography
2. Political situation
3. Economy
a. Figures
4. Health
5. Education
a. Universities
6. Demographics
7. Religions
a. Freedom
8. Peoples
9. Languages
10. History
11. Cities and Towns



























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Open map of OmanFlag of OmanOman /
History


Throughout this presentation, two terms are perhaps confusingly used for the whole country today known as Oman. 'Oman' for the mountainous inner regions, and 'Musqat' for the northern coastal territory.
A third region is Dhofar, the southern parts of modern Oman, which was famous for its Frankincense.
3rd millennium BCE: It is believed that modern Oman corresponds with the land of Magan, which was a trading partner of Ur and other important cities of ancient times.
1st century: Much of Oman is believed to come under control of the Himyarites.
Around 0: Roman geographers name a port of Omana, which probably corresponds with Musqat.
1st or 2nd century CE: Immigration of the Qahtan people from southern Arabia and the Nizar from the lands south of the Persian Gulf.
3rd century CE: Kingdom founded by an Arab chief from Hira in Mesopotamia.
7th century: The Omanis accepts Islam told to them by Amr ibn al-As, who had been sent by Muhammad. Trying to break free after Muhammad's death, they become involved in the ar-Ridda war.
Late 7th century: Ibadi branch of Islam is launched in Oman, and would quickly gain influence.
751: The first Omani imam is elected.
930's: Oman is conquered by the Qarmatians.
972: Comes under the Buyids.
1053: Passes to the Seljuq Empire.
1154: Local Nabhani dynasty repels the Seljuqs.
1507: The arrival of the Portuguese.
1515: Musqat is captured by the Portuguese.
1550: Briefly, the Ottomans take control over Musqat. The following year, they are driven out by the Portuguese.
1581: For a second time, the Ottomans take control over Musqat.
1588: The Portuguese take Musqat back.
1600: The Nabhanis reestablishes themselves as rulers of Oman.
1624: The Nabhanis are replaced in Oman by the Yaariba imams. Other spelling is Ya'aruba.
1650: The Portuguese are driven out of Musqat by the Yaaribas.
1698: The sultan of Oman takes control of Zanzibar and Mombasa, thereby also their lucrative slave trade.
1749: Ahmad Ibn Said becomes imam of Oman, founding the al-Bu Said Dynasty, which still rule the country. Ahmad expels the Iranian community in revenge of their support for his opponent to the imamate.
1783: The united Oman splits, with two princes of the ruling family establishing themselves on the coast north of Musqat, the other ruling the rest of Oman.
1798: Treaty of friendship with Britain, with Oman still being independent.
1829: Dhofar comes under the sultan in Musqat.
1861: Zanzibar is split from Musqat and Oman, and has to pay annual subsidy, which it would continue with until 1964.
1868: Azzam ibn Qais as-Said declares himself imam.
1871 March: With the aid of the British, Turki ibn Said defeats and kills Azzam.
Late 19th century: Ibadi rebellion around Nizwa against the sultan in Musqat.
1908: An agreement with Great Britain on friendship and trade.
1913: Taimur ibn Faisal becomes new sultan.
1915: Fights begin between the group of the newly elected imam, Isa ibn Salih, in the interior and the sultan.
1920: Peace is restored.
1932: Said Bin Taimur becomes sultan.
1951 December 20: In a new agreement with the British, independence is recognized for the land which is called 'Muscat and Oman'. This was only formal, in reality, Oman remained very much under British influence.
1954: The Ibadi imam, Ghalib ibn Ali, starts a new rebellion, and gets help from Egypt and Saudi Arabia.
1959: The sultan puts the rebellion down, with British aid. The office of the imam is suspended, and the imam goes into exile in Saudi Arabia.
1964: Oil is discovered.
1965: Revolt in Dhofar, because of the repressive politics of the sultan, led by Marxist groups supported by South Yemen.
1967: Oil production starts.
1970 July 23: Sultan Said is overthrown by his own son, Qaboos ibn Said, in a palace coup. Said goes into exile in London. Qaboos introduces liberalizations of the political system, establishes a government, and starts many development projects.
August:The name of the country is changed to 'Sultanate of Oman'.
1971 October: Oman becomes member of the United Nations.
1970s: Oman continues to be plagued by civil war in the region of Dhofar.
1973: The sultan gets military aid from Iran.
1975 December: The sultan manages to defeat the Dhofari rebels. A large-scale development programme is launched for Dhofar, a part of the campaign to win back regional allegiance.
1979: Oman supports the Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty.
1980: Military agreement with the USA is signed, as Oman is scared by Iranian revolution and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, both happening the year before.
1981: Together with 6 other countries, Oman forms the Gulf Cooperation Council.
— A consultative assembly is established with 45 members.
1982: Oman agrees with South Yemen to normalize relations.
1983: The number of members in the consultative assembly is raised to 55.
1987: Oman opens an embassy in Aden, South Yemen.
1990: A consultative council, Majlis ash-Shura, takes the place of the assembly, with members from regions.
1991: The Majlis ash-Shura is expanded to 59 members, with a president appointed by the government.
1994: Women are permitted to run for political offices.
September: Normalization of relations with Israel.
1995 June: A demarcation line between a now-unified Yemen and Oman is finalized.
1996 November: A basic constitution is presented by the sultan, being based upon both Islam and local practice. Two chambers defined, the existing Majlis ash-Shura and an upper chamber, the Majlis ad-Dawla. Half of the members of the Majlis ash-Shura were to be appointed by the sultan, all for the Majlis ad-Dawla.
1997: Demonstrations against the lack of democratic reform.
April: Oman boycotts Israel for its decision to built Jewish-only settlements on Palestinian territory near Jerusalem.
2000 September: Elections for the Majlis ash-Shura, now with all seats out for democratic election. 81 men and 2 women are appointed. Although democratic, only 150,000 citizens were permitted to vote, and a third of these participate.
December: The sultan appoints a Majlis ad-Dawla with 48 members, of which 4 are women.
2003 October 4: New elections for the Majlis ash-Shura, again with low participation, and with 2 women among the total 83.




By Tore Kjeilen