Turkey / Cities and Towns /
City in northern Turkey with 360,000 inhabitants (2004 estimate), on the Black Sea, between the Kizil and Yesil rivers. It is the capital of Samsun Province with 1.2 million inhabitants (2004 estimate), and the largest Turkish Black Sea city.
Samsun is the capital of a fertile region, which is one of the largest producers of Turkish tobacco. Other important agricultural products are wool, cereals, hides and vegetables. Local industries produce fertilizers and textiles. Samsun's harbour is well protected, and was modernized and expanded in the 1960's.
Samsun is connected by railways and road to Sivas 300 km south and other smaller towns in Anatolia, and by road to Ankara 400 km southwest. Iron is transported to Samsun from Divrigi. The local airport has connections with Ankara and Istanbul.
Modern Samsun houses absolutely no monuments from its long history.
1182 BCE: Phrygians destroy a city on the location of future Samsun.
562: Founded by the Greeks as the trade colony Amisus.
4th century: Comes under control of the kings of Pontus.
71: Burned down by its defenders, when captured by the Romans.
12th century: Captured by the Seljuq Turks, who renames it Samsun.
Late 14th century: Captured by the Ottomans.
1402: The Ottomans are defeated by Timur Lenk, and control of Samsun passes over to the Turkmen Candar principality.
1425: The Genoese torch Samsun, and hands it over to the Ottomans.
1869: A great fire destroys large parts of the city.
1919 May 19 Mustafa Kemal starts his conquest of Turkey at Samsun, eventually leading to the foundation of modern state of Turkey.
1975: May 19 University is founded, commemorating Atatürk's fight for Turkish independence.