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312-164 BCE164-64 BCE

Persia /
Seleucid Dynasty

Rulers (Kings)
Years BCE
Seleucus 1 Nicator 312- 281
Antiochus 1 Soter 281- 261
Antiochus 2 Theos 261- 246
Seleucus 2 Callinicus 246- 225
Seleucus 3 Ceraunus 225- 223
Antiochus 3 the Great 223- 187
Seleucus 4 Philopator 187- 175
Antiochus 4 Epiphanes 175- 164
Antiochus 5 Eupator 164-162
Demetrius 1 Soter 161-150
Alexander 1 Balas 150-145
Demetrius 2 Nicator 145-1381)
Antiochus 6 Dionysus 145-140?
Diodotus Tryphon 140?-138
Antiochus 7 Sidetes 138-129
Demetrius 2 Nicator 129-1262)
Alexander 2 Zabinas 129-123
Cleopatra Thea 126-123
Seleucus 5 Philometor 126-125
Antiochus 8 Grypus 125-96
Antiochus 9 Cyzicenus 114-96
Seleucus 6 Epiphanes 96-95
Antiochus 10 Eusebes 95-92
Demetrius 3 Eucaerus 95-87
Antiochus 11 Epiphanes 95-92
Philip 1 Philadelphus 95-83
Antiochus 12 Dionysus 87-84
Seleucus 7 Kybiosaktes ca.70-ca.60
Antiochus 13 Asiaticus 69-64
Philip 2 Philoromaeus 65-63
1) First reign
2) Second reign

Dynasty of ancient Middle East. The dynasty lasted 312-64 BCE, but for about its last 100 years, it was only one of many medium-sized states, during its last period, only a small kingdom ruling the lands surrounding Antakya (corresponding to parts of modern Turkey and Syria).
The Seleucids lost their Persian lands in the middle of the 2nd century BCE. The process of losing Persia began in the middle of the 3rd century BCE, with the rise of the Parthian Dynasty. The struggle between the two dynasties would last about 80 years before the Parthians were the sole rulers of Persia.
The foundations of the Seleucid Dynasty were lain by Alexander the Great in the 4th century with his conquests of Persia and the surrounding lands. The actual founder of the dynasty was Seleucus 1 Nicator, 11 years after Alexander's death.
At its largest, around 300 BCE, the empire of the Seleucid Empire stretched from Thrace in Europe to the border of India; this including Anatolia and Greek cities. The empire reached its height with Antiochus 3 the Great in the decades before and after 200 BCE. Although its size was drastically reduced compared to a century before, it was more united and more stable. Antiochus launched major administrative reforms, uniting military and political power into one office. Prior to this, military and political leaders often had conflicting interests in many regions. New administrative centres were established at Sardis in the west and Seleucia on the Tigris river.
The era of the Seleucids involved the promotion of Hellenistic culture, sometimes mixing with local cultures, sometimes replacing these. The elite of the state was Greek-speaking Macedonians, involving little influx of pre-Seleucid regional elites.
Both the foreign elite and their culture were met with regional resistance. One example is with Antiochus 4's attempt to raise a statue of Zeus in the Jewish Temple of Jerusalem, thereby kick starting the 2nd century BCE Maccabean revolt.

321 BCE: Seleucus becomes satrap of Babylonia.
312: Seleucus defeats Demetrius at Gaza, then marches on to take control of Babylonia. A long struggle to establish control over Persia begins.
305: Having secured his position in Persia, Seleucus sends troops to neighbouring lands in the east as well as the west, attacking the lands of the Indus River, Syria and Anatolia.
301: Defeats Antigonus at Ipsus.
281: Annexes Chersonesus in Thrace in Europe.
— Seleucus is assassinated by Ptolmey Ceraunus. His son, Antiochus 1 Soter, becomes new king.
200: Palestine is conquered by Antiochus 3.
191/0: The Seleucids are defeated by the Romans, in 191 at Thermopylae, in 190 at Magnesia.
188: With the Treaty of Apamea, peace is acheived with the Romans, at unfavorable terms: All territory in Europe, and the north of Anatolia are lost.
165: Triggered by Antiochus 4's attempt to raise a statue of Zeus in the Temple of Jerusalem, the Maccabean revolt begins; the revolt would some 25 years give birth to an independent state of Judea.
141: All land east of the Euphrates river is lost; from this time on, the Seleucids.
64: The remainder of the Seleucid state is conqured by the Romans.

By Tore Kjeilen