Orient for North Africa and the Middle East
Enuma Elish
BOOK 6 and 7






BOOK 6

When Marduk heard the speech of the gods,
He made up his mind to perform miracles.
He spoke his utterance to Ea,
And communicated to him the plan that he was considering.
‘Let me put blood together, and make bones too.
Let me set up primeval man: Man shall be his name.
Let me create a primeval man.
The work of the gods shall be imposed (on him), and so they shall be at leisure.
Let me change the ways of the gods miraculously,
So they are gathered as one yet divided in two.'
Ea answered him and spoke a word to him,
Told him his plan for the leisure of the gods.
‘Let one who is hostile to them be surrendered (up),
Let him be destroyed, and let people be created (from him).
Let the great gods assemble,
Let the culprit be given up, and let them convict him.'
Marduk assembled the great gods,
Gave (them) instructions pleasantly, gave orders.
The gods paid attention to what he said.
The king addressed his words to the Anunnaki,
‘Your election of me shall be firm and foremost.
I shall declare the laws, the edicts within my power.
Whosoever started the war,
And incited Tiamat, and gathered an army,
Let the one who started the war be given up to me,
And he shall bear the penalty for his crime, that you may dwell in peace.'
The Igigi, the great gods, answered him,
Their lord Lugal-dimmer-ankia, counsellor of the gods,
‘It was Qingu who started the war,
He who incited Tiamat and gathered an army!'
They bound him and held him in front of Ea,
Imposed the penalty on him and cut off his blood.
He created mankind from his blood,
Imposed the toil of the gods (on man) and released the gods from it.
When Ea the wise had created mankind,
Had imposed the toil of the gods on them -
That deed is impossible to describe,
For Nudimmud performed it with the miracles of Marduk -
Then Marduk the king divided the gods,
The Anunnaki, all of them, above and below.
He assigned his decrees to Anu to guard,
Established three hundred as a guard in the sky;
Did the same again when he designed the conventions of earth,
And made the six hundred dwell in both heaven and earth.
When he had directed all the decrees,
Had divided lots for the Anunnaki, of heaven and of earth,
The Anunnaki made their voices heard
And addressed Marduk their lord,
‘Now, O Lord, that you have set us free,
What are our favours from you?
We would like to make a shrine with its own name.
We would like our night's resting place to be in your private quarters, and to rest there.
Let us found a shrine, a sanctuary there.
Whenever we arrive, let us rest within it.'
When Marduk heard this,
His face lit up greatly, like daylight.
‘Create Babylon, whose construction you requested!
Let its mud bricks be moulded, and build high the shrine!'
The Anunnaki began shovelling.
For a whole year they made bricks for it.
When the second year arrived,
They had raised the top of Esagila in front of (?) the Apsu;
They had built a high ziggurat for the Apsu.
They founded a dwelling for Anu, Ellil, and Ea likewise.
In ascendancy he settled himself in front of them,
And his ‘horns' look down at the base of Esharra.
When they had done the work on Esagila,
(And) the Anunnaki, all of them, had fashioned their individual shrines,
The three hundred Igigi of heaven and the Anunnaki of the Apsu assembled.
The Lord invited the gods his fathers to attend a banquet
In the great sanctuary which he and created as his dwelling.
‘Indeed, Bab-ili (is) your home too!
Sing for joy there, dwell in happiness!'
The great gods sat down there,
And set out the beer mugs; they attended the banquet.
When they had made merry within,
They themselves made a taqribtu-offering in splendid Esagila.
All the decrees (and) designs were fixed.
All the gods divided the stations of heaven and earth.
The fifty great gods were present, and
The gods fixed the seven destinies for the cult.
The Lord received the bow, and set his weapon down in front of them.
The gods his fathers looked at the net which he had made,
Looked at the bow, how miraculous her construction,
And his fathers praised the deeds that he had done.
Anu raised (the bow) and spoke in the assembly of gods,
He kissed the bow. ‘May she go far!'
He gave to the bow her names, saying,
‘May Long and Far be the first, and Victorious the second;
Her third name shall be Bowstar, for she shall shine in the sky.'
He fixed her position among the gods her companions.
When Anu had decreed the destiny of the bow,
He set down her royal throne. ‘You are highest of the gods!'
And Anu made her sit in the assembly of gods.
The great gods assembled
And made Marduk's destiny highest; they themselves did obeisance.
They swore an oath for themselves,
And swore on water and oil, touched their throats.
Thus they granted that he should exercise the kingship of the gods
And confirmed for him mastery of the gods of heaven and earth.
Anshar gave him another name: ASARLUHI.
‘At the mention of his name we shall bow down!
The gods are to pay heed to what he says:
His command is to have priority above and below.
The son who avenged us shall be the highest!
His rule shall have priority; let him have no rival!
Let him act as shepherd over the black-headed people, his creation.
Let his way be proclaimed in future days, never forgotten.
He shall establish great nindabu-offerings for his fathers.
He shall take care of them, he shall look after their shrines.
He shall let them smell the qutrinnu-offering, and make their chant joyful.
Let him breathe on earth as freely as he always does in heaven.
Let him designate the black-headed people to revere him,
That mankind may be mindful of him, and name him as their god.
Let their (interceding) goddess pay attention when he opens his mouth.
Let nindabu-offerings be brought [to] their god (and) their goddess.
Let them never be forgotten! Let them cleave to their god.
Let them keep their country preeminent, and always build shrines.
Though the black-headed people share out the gods,
As for us, no matter by which name we call him, he shall be our god.
Come, let us call him by his fifty names!
His ways shall be proclaimed, and his deeds likewise!
MARDUK
Whose father Anu designated him at the moment of his birth, To be in charge of pasturage and watering places, to enrich their stalls,
Who overwhelmed the riotous ones with his flood-weapon?
And saved the gods his fathers from hardship.
Let THE SON, MAJESTY OF THE GODS be his name!
In his bright light may they walk forever more:
The people whom he created, the form of life that breathes.
He imposed the work of the gods (on them) so that they might rest.
Creation and abolition, forgiveness and punishment -
Such are at his disposal, so let them look to him.
MARUKKA---he is the god who created them.
He pleases the Anunnaki and gives rest to the Igigi
MARUTUKKU---he is the help of country, city, and his people.
Him shall the people revere forever.
MERSHAKUSHU---fierce yet considerate, furious yet merciful.
Generous is his heart, controlled are his emotions.
LUGAL-DIMMER-ANKIA---his name which we gave him in our assembly.
We made his command higher than the gods his fathers'.
He is indeed BEL of the gods of heaven and earth, all of them,
The king at whose instruction the gods are awed above and below.
NARI-LUGAL-DIMMER-ANKIA is a name that we have given him as director of the gods,
Who founded our dwellings in heaven and earth out of difficulties,
And who shared out the stations for the Igigi and Anunnaki.
At his names may the gods tremble and quake in (their) dwellings.
ASARLUHI (first) is his name which his father Anu gave him,
He shall be the light of the gods, strong leader,
Who like his name is the protecting spirit of god and country.
He spared our dwellings in the great battle despite difficulties.
Second, they called him Asarluhi as NAMTILA, the god who gives life,
Who restored all the damaged gods as if they were his own creation.
Bel, who revives dead gods with his pure incantation,
Who destroys those who oppose him but . . . s the enemy.
Asarluhi third as NAMRU, whose name was given (thus),
The pure god who purifies our path.'
Anshar, Lahmu, and Lahamu called his three names;
They pronounced them to the gods their sons,
'We have given him each of these three names.
Now you, pronounce his names as we did!'
The gods rejoiced, and obeyed their command.
In Ubshu-ukkinakku they deliberated their counsel.
‘Let us elevate the name of the son, the warrior,
Our champion who looks after us!'
They sat in their assembly and began to call out the destinies,
Pronounced his name in all their rites.

BOOK 7

‘ASARE, bestower of ploughland, who fixes (its) boundaries,
Creator of grain and linseed, producer of vegetation.
ASAR-ALIM, whose weighty counsel in the Chamber of Council is most valued;
The gods, even those who know no fear, pay heed to him.
ASAR-ALIM-NUNA, the honoured one, the light of the father who begot him,
Who directs the orders of Anu, Ellil, Ea, and D[amkina?].
He indeed is their provider, who allocates their incomes,
Whose farmland makes a surplus for the country.
He is TUTU, (first) as creator of their renewal.
He shall purify their shrines, that they may stay at rest.
He shall invent an incantation, that the gods may be at peace.
Even if they should rise up in anger, he shall turn them back.
He shall be pre-eminent in the assembly of the gods his fathers;
None among the gods shall rival him.
He is Tutu, (second) as ZI-UKKINA, the inspiration of his people,
Who fixed pure skies for the gods,
Who set their ways and marked out their stations.
May he not be forgotten by teeming humanity, may they uphold his work.
Thirdly, they named him Tutu and ZIKU, upholder of purification,
They god of sweet breath, lord of obedience and consent,
Producer of riches and abundance, who maintains a surplus,
Who turns whatever is scant into plenty.
Even in the worst hardship we can smell his sweet breath!
May they speak in worship and sing his praises!
Fourthly, let the people glorify Tutu as AGAKU,
Lord of the pure incantation, who revives the dying,
Who showed mercy even to the captured gods,
Who removed the yoke imposed upon the gods his enemies,
Who created mankind to set them free,
The merciful one who has the power to give life!
His words shall be firm; they shall never be forgotten
In the mouth of the black-headed people whom he created with his own hands.
Fifthly, let their mouths show forth Tutu as TUKU, whose spell (is) pure,
Who uprooted all the wicked with his pure incantation.
He is SHAZU, aware of the gods' intentions, who can see emotions,
Who does not allow evil-doers to escape him,
Establisher of the gods' assembly, gratifier of their wishes,
Who makes the arrogant kneel beneath his wide canopy.
Director of justice, who plucks out crooked speech,
In whose place lies can be distinguished from truth.
Secondly, let them worship Shazu as ZISI, silencer of the aggressor,
Expeller of deathly silence from the bodies of the gods his fathers.
Thirdly, he is Shazu as SUHRIM, uprooter of all the foe by force of arms,
Dispelling their plots, scattering them to the winds,
Extinguishing all the wicked, wherever they may be.
May the gods always proclaim the triumph in the assembly!
Fourthly, he is Shazu as SUHGURIM, responsible for the obedience of the gods his fathers.
Uprooter of the foe, destroyer of their offspring,
Dispeller of their works, who left no trace of them.
Let his name be proclaimed and spoken in the land.
Fifthly, let future generations consider Shazu as ZAHRIM,
Destroyer of all enemies, every one of them arrogant,
Who brought all the refugee gods into shrines:
Let this be established as his name.
Sixthly, let them all praise Shazu as ZAHGURIM too,
Who destroyed all the foe by himself in battle.
He is ENBILULU, the lord, their enricher;
Their deity is mighty, responsible for sacrificial omens,
Who looks after pasturage and watering places, establishes them for the land,
Who opens up wells (?) and apportions the waters of abundance.
Secondly, let them address Enbilulu as EPADUN, lord of the countryside and . . . ,
Canal-controller of heaven and earth, establisher of the furrow,
Who maintains pure ploughland in the countryside,
Who directs ditches and canals and marks out the furrows.
Thirdly, let them praise Enbilulu as GUGAL ("canal-controller") of the gods' irrigated land.
Lord of abundance and the luxuriance of great grain-piles.
Responsible for riches, who gives surplus to homes,
Giver of cereals, producer of grain.
Fourthly (?), he is Enbilulu as HEGAL ("Abundance"), who heaps up a surplus for people,
Who brings rain of abundance over the broad earth, and makes vegetation grow profusely.
He is SIRSIR, who piled a mountain over Tiamat,
And took as booty the corpse of Tiamat, by his force of arms.
Governor of the land, their righteous shepherd,
Whose gifts are cultivation, garden plots and ploughland,
Who waded into the broad Sea-Tiamat in his fury:
Like a bridge he spanned her battlefield.
Secondly, they maned Sirsir as MALAH ("Boatman")---may she, Tiamat,
Be his barque forever, and he her sailor.
He is GIL, who amasses mighty heaps and mounds of grain.
Producer of cereals and flocks, giver of the land's seed.
He is GILIMA, who established the cosmic bond of the gods, who created stability;
The ring that encompasses them, who prepares good things,
He is AGILIMA, the lofty, who pulled the crown from the wicked,
And built the earth above the water, established the upper regions.
He is ZULUM who designated fields for the gods, and divided up what he had created.
Bestower of incomes and food offerings, supplier of shrines.
He is MUMMU, fashioner of heaven and earth, director of . . .
The god who purifies heaven and earth, secondly as ZULUM-UMMU
Whom no other god equals for strength.
GISH-NUMUN-AB, creator of all people, maker of the world's quarters,
Destroyer of Tiamat's gods, maker of people in their entirety.
LUGAL-AB-DUBUR, the king who scattered Tiamat's brood and snatched her weapon,
Who made a firm base in the van and the rear.
PAGAL-GUENA, leader of all lords, whose might is supreme,
Who is greatest of the gods his brothers, prince of them all.
LUGAL-DURMAH, king, bond of gods, lord of the cosmic bond,
Who is greatest in the royal abode, highest of the gods by far.
ARANUNA, counsellor of Ea, creator of the gods [his (?)] fathers,
Whom no god equals in his princely way.
DUMU-DUKU, whose pure dwelling is marked out for him on the holy mound,
Dumu-duku, without whom rules cannot be decided, LUGAL-DUKU.
LUGAL-SHANNA, king whose might is supreme among the gods.
Lord, might of Anu, who is pre-eminent as the namesake (?) of Anshar.
IRUGA, who took them all captive from inside Tiamat,
Who unites all wisdom, and is broad of understanding.
IRQINGU, who took Qingu captive as foe (?) in (?) battle,
Who administers decrees for everything, who confirms supremacy.
KINMA, director of the gods, giver of counsel,
At whose name the gods themselves quake in fear as in a tempest.
As E-SIZKUR, he shall sit highest in the house of prayer,
And the gods shall bring their presents before him,
As long as he accepts revenues from them.
None may perform miracles without him.
No (other) god shall designate the revenues of the black-headed people, his own creation,
Without him, nor decisions about their lifetimes.
GIBIL, who establishes the . . . of weapon(s),
Who performed miracles in the battle with Tiamat.
Profound in wisdom, skilled in understanding,
(So) profound, that none of the gods can comprehend.
ADDU shall be his name: let him cover all the sky,
And may his fine noise rumble over the earth.
May he shed water (?) from the clouds,
And give sustenance to the people below.
ASHARU, who like his name is responsible for the gods of destinies:
He does indeed take charge over every single person.
NEBERU: he does indeed hold the crossings of heaven and earth.
Neither up nor down shall they cross over; they must wait on him.
Neberu is the star which is bright in the sky.
He controls the crossroads; they must look to him,
Saying: "He who kept crossing inside Tiamat without respite,
Shall have Neberu as his name, grasping her middle.
May he establish the paths of the heavenly stars,
And may he shepherd all the gods like sheep.
Let him defeat Tiamat, constrict her breath and shorten her life,
So that for future people, till time grows old,
She shall be far removed, not kept here, distant forever,
Because he created a place, he fashioned Dannina."
ENKURKUR, father Ellil named him.
Ea heard that name, by which the Igigi all called him,
And was delighted, saying,
"He whose fathers have given him such a splendid name
Shall have the name Ea, just like me.
He shall have mastery over the arrangement of all my rites,
And shall direct every one of my decrees."'
With fifty epithets the great gods
Called his fifty names, making his way supreme.
May they always be cherished, and may the older explain (to the younger).
Let the wise and learned consult together,
Let the father repeat them and teach them to the son.
Let the ear of shepherd and herdsman be open,
Let him not be negligent to Marduk, the Ellil of the gods.
May his country be made fertile, and himself be safe and sound.
His word is firm, his command cannot alter;
No god can change his utterance.
When he is angry, he does not turn his neck (aside);
In his rage and fury no god dare confront him.
His thoughts are deep, his emotions profound;
Criminals and wrongdoers pass before him.
He (the scribe?) wrote down secret instruction which older men had recited in his presence,
And set it down for future men to read.
May the [people?]s of Marduk whom the Igigi gods created
Weave the [tale?] and call upon his name
In remembrance of the song of Marduk
Who defeated Tiamat and took the kingship.












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