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Islam
INTRODUCTION
1. Orientations
a. Figures
2. Koran
3. Theology
4. Concept of divine
5. Sharia
6. Muhammad
7. Cult and Festivals
8. Mecca
9. Cultic personalities
10. Caliph
11. Structures
12. Popular religion
13. Others
14. Calendar



























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Islam / Caliph / Umayyads /
Umar 2
Arabic: ¢umari bni ¢abdi l-azīz


(682-720) Caliph of Sunni Islam 717-720, as part of the Umayyad Dynasty.
Umar 2 may be considered the most respected by all Umayyad rulers. Both Abbasid rulers and many Shi'is consider his period as a good one. He is sometimes called the 5th and last Rightly Guided Caliph.
He was a very religious man, concerned about returning to the original principles of Islam. He rejected the luxuries of the caliphate, abandoned the royal palace to live and rule from a tent.
Among his achievements were to create a consultative body of religiously learned men. He ended the ongoing military campaigns, which had proven quite unsuccessful. He sacked unpopular governors, redistributed land that had been confiscated by earlier Umayyad ruler, and he introduced the same fiscal rights to non-Arab Muslims.

Biography
682 or 683: Born in Madina as son of Abdulaziz, and nephew of Abd al-Malik, who would become caliph in 685.
706: Is appointed governor of Hijaz, and governs together with a council. A period of stability and progress for the region starts.
712?: Is removed from his position in Hijaz after the demand of Hajjaj who governed from Iraq, and who felt that his position was weakened by the popularity of Umar.
717 September or October: Caliph Sulayman dies, and according to Sulayman's wish, Umar becomes new caliph, although he was not a natural heir.
720 February: Dies in Aleppo in Syria. He is succeeded by his cousin Yazid 2.




By Tore Kjeilen