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1750-1794


Persia /
Zand Dynasty



Rulers. Khans
Karim 1749-1779
Abol Fath 1779
Ali Murad 17791)
Mohammed Ali 1779
Sadiq 1779-1782
Ali Murad 1782-17852)
Jafar 1785-1789
Lotf Ali 1789-1794
1) First reign
2) Second reign

Karim Khan Zand

Karim Khan Zand, founder of this dynasty.

Period with rulers of central and southern Persia, 1750-1794, or until 1779, 44 or 29 years. It is labelled "dynasty", although it lasted for a short time only. Altough there were 7 kings to it, only one ruled with unquestioned power and for a considerable time; the dynasty's founder Karim, who was of the Lor people.
Shiraz was made capital of the dynasty, and Karim added many great buildings to it.
The rule of Karim Khan Zand was one that brough peace to the civil war broken south of Persia. He put much emphasis on the development of agriculture, reorganized the fiscal system and promoted trade with Great Britain. His death left the power issue unsolved, and 5 kings ruled before Lotf Ali Khan assumed power trying to put down a rebellion that would end with his defeat and the birth of Persia's next dynasty, the Qajar.

History
1747: Nader Shah, the Afsharid ruler, dies. Karim Khan Zand is one of several contenders to the power position of Persia.
1750: Karim Khan establishes effective power.
1757: Makes the infant son of the last Safavid king, Ismail 3, king, himself vakil (regent). This to avoid questions of the legitimacy of his power position. Yet Karim exercised full power.
1775: Karim launches a successful attack on Basra, which was a great contender to Persian ports in the important trade with India.
1779: Karim Khan dies, and Persia falls to dissensions and partial civil war.
1794: Lotf Ali Khan is defeated by Mohammad Khan Qajar at Kerman, ending the Zand Dynasty.




By Tore Kjeilen