The ancient Egyptian technologies have been evident in architecture, arithmetic, language, astronomy, medicine, and a lot more.

While you know that the ancient period in Egypt is commonly related to the construction of pyramids, amazingly preserved mummies, and highly respected pharaohs, the technology of ancient Egypt was transferred and applied in a very wide range covering science and culture.

The ancient Egyptian concepts of strength and stability in all matters lay at the heart of the methods that they gifted to our present generation. Harmony and creativity may be maintained by overcoming life’s troubles through the use of human ingenuity.

While the historic Egyptians believed gods gave many fantastic blessings to their people, an individual nevertheless had the obligation of taking care of the kingdom by making use of know-how and inventiveness to enhance Egyptian society.

Thus, their engineers, astronomers, and scientists are convinced that they were fulfilling the wishes of the gods by improving the areas in which they were talented. Consequently, the ancient Egyptians have proven themselves as innovators.

What Did the Ancient Egypt Invent?

The ancient Egyptians believed applying information and inventiveness to beautify their society through generations was the desire of the gods. They also made advanced discoveries in math, engineering, and many fields in the industry. A vital invention, the hieroglyphics, ensured that we enjoy a rich treasure trove of information on vital sports, lists of kings, and magical incantations, all of which survived and are believed to benefit us hundreds of years later.

In addition to the numerous ancient Egypt technology and inventions, the historic Egyptians were able to create a giant network of irrigation canals and channels through efficient hydraulic engineering strategies.

Papyrus grew to be highly priced, even if it started to be mass-produced and popularly traded with people from locations in Ancient Greece and Rome. Big machines and equipment, along with levers, counterweights, cranes, and ramps, have been used to construct the pyramids, temples, and palaces of historical Egypt.

Moving forward, the ancient Egyptians had been experts in logistics and organizing their manpower and labor resources for many years. Early forms of timekeeping records, gadgets, and a calendar enabled the historic Egyptians to track employees’ official duty schedules.

Heavy cargo ships were used to transport the large stones and boulders that were employed to construct Egypt’s pyramids and temples. Early Egyptians additionally built massive vessels for buying and selling and huge barges to provide entertainment to the pharaoh. Would you believe that they were the first ones to feature stem-mounted rudders on their vessels?

– Arithmetic

The Giza pyramids, the iconic Egyptian structures, required high-level math skills, particularly in geometry. The only indication that the computation encountered a huge error can be gleaned by looking at the collapsed structures.

The failed construction project is a clear manifestation that mathematics was done incorrectly. However, despite the small number of failures, the ancient Egyptians succeeded in many other ways.

In different commercial transactions, state inventories, and in recording all supplies and materials, it is arithmetic that has made their life easier and more organized. Egyptians were the first to develop their own version of the decimal system, where they would write different units like ones, tens, and hundreds.

– Astronomy

The ancient Egyptians knew that their religion has always been dependent on the sky. That is why they became very keen on observing the night sky, from the movement of the stars, their formations, and their creations of different artificial horizons that will mark the sun and its position.

Even the summer and winter seasons were clearly annotated. Lunar calendars were created in detail based on the phases of the stars and moon. All these inventions led to the creation of a calendar, which is widely used even nowadays that indicates 12 months, 365 days, and the daily 24-hour cycle.

– Medicine

The ancient Egyptian contributions had made important advancements in the field of medicine. Coupled with extensive knowledge of anatomy, they devised a large array of medications and treatments for both human and animal diseases.

The mummification process to preserve their dead is proof that their knowledge was sophisticated and advanced for that era.

The earliest study on neuroscience that analyzed the brain, as evidenced by medical texts, occurred in ancient Egypt. The treatments, however, remained far from being the norm in medical practice, as there was anxiety and hesitance, if not fear, among the patients.

One example was the cure for eye infections using a mixture of human brains and honey, while for cough, they recommended a cooked mouse. In treating wounds, the ancient Egyptians also tried piercing to ward off infections and applied cow manure.

With all of these treatments, a lot of their patients developed infections. Ancient Egyptians also believed in magical powers, and many of their procedures were coupled with spells with the belief that it was the evil spirits that made the people sick and thus needed to be warded off.

– Agriculture

Egypt is mostly composed of desert and arid land. While it is very important for the Egyptians to engage in agriculture to survive, they needed to be resourceful enough to make use of their narrow fertile land, which annually gets flooded by the Nile River.

In order to maximize their output, the people of ancient Egypt developed machineries and other farm technologies.

– Irrigation Networks

The technologies of ancient Egypt gave rise to hydraulic engineering techniques to build up networks of irrigation canals and channels over thousands of years. These inventions of ancient Egypt have been very effective because they employ scientific principles and critical formulations to come up with the best results.

Because of these, the pharaohs made decisions to expand their territory and amass a bigger area of land for cultivation. This marked success made Egypt the breadbasket of Rome for centuries.

The so-called Egyptologists have later proven that the irrigation systems existed as early as the 12th Dynasty in ancient Egypt. With the ingenuity of the kingdom’s builders and engineers, they were able to find a way to store surplus water by using the lake in Faiyum Oasis as their reservoir.

– The Ox-Drawn Plow

The ancient Egyptians had to race in planting their fields so they could be harvested before flooding. This happens every planting season; they needed to plant and harvest within that small window as the cycle of flooding is inevitable. They made the technology faster and the size of the cultivated land bigger.

What made this possible is the use of ox-drawn plows, which began in 2500 B.C. This ancient Egyptian invention involved blacksmithing and metallurgy.

Shaping the basic plow to perfection is necessary to provide comfort, as well as faster and more efficient results.  An ox is used to pull a plow, and this speeded up the work, simplified the process, and paved the way to a more productive annual crop, which included beans, chickpeas, carrots, leeks, turnips, and many others.

– Hieroglyphics

Even before the earliest period, the people of ancient Egypt were able to develop a form of writing distinctive only to their culture. This form of writing was evident and carved in buildings, temples, complexes, tombs, and many other structures. Hieroglyphics is considered one of the most systematic forms of writing among those of the ancient cultures.

The Egyptians managed to keep their own records and saw to it that everything was under control. The neighboring kingdoms were sent communications, formal letters, and texts with sacred contents that included religious invocations.

One book that was believed to help guide the dead while traveling to the underworld is the iconic Book of the Dead. This is one example of a sacred book of hieroglyphics.

– Papyrus

The ancient Egyptian civilization had made a legacy by making papyrus. This is a rare plant in the wild, which is abundant in the Egyptian Delta. To keep a record of inspection of the royal tombs, the ancient Egyptians made this plant into very durable paper-like material used for writing.

During that time, it was mass-produced but still remained very expensive as it was used in very important papers, such as state documents and religious texts. Later on, Egypt started to sell papyrus to its trading partners, such as Greece.

– Ink

Since papyrus was already created, ancient Egypt had manufactured and developed its own inks. These inks came in different colors, including wide ranges of bright dyes. They became so successful as the inks retained their brilliance, and even thousands of years later, these types of inks are still clearly readable.

– Calendars

The ancient Egyptians had come up with a calendar system more than 5,000 years ago. Initially, they had included the 12-month lunar cycle. This proved that Egypt was considered an advanced civilization.

The four-month season also marked the annual cycle of flooding brought about by the Nile River. They noticed that floods usually occurred over 80 days until the end of June. This observation had led to the idea that the floods coincided with the rising of the star Sirius, so they found it necessary to revise the calendar based on its appearance.

There also came a time when the Egyptians’ knowledge of astronomy was applied to refine the calendar to track the days accurately. This version is still being used nowadays.

– Clocks

After developing the calendar, ancient Egyptians used different devices to track time by dividing the day into parts, which gave birth to the ancient version of the clock. By tracking the position of the sun, time was determined. In order to track the night, they made use of the rising and setting of the stars.

Accounts also noted that old water clocks were used by the ancient Egyptians. Bowl-shaped vessels with a hole stuck in the base, floated on a container with water, were utilized. This way, the vessels were gradually filled up by water. The passing hours were determined based on the rising water level.

These ancient clock designs were known to be adopted by the priests to check their time in the temples and to monitor the duration of every religious rite.

– Construction and Engineering Technologies

The construction techniques featuring ancient Egyptian tools and technology showed their highly conservative culture, as evident in their temple complexes, palaces, gigantic pyramids, and massive tombs.

Although their structures were created in the earliest period, Egyptians were able to combine advanced knowledge of math, engineering, astronomy, and science.

It might be a big puzzle today how Egyptians had constructed these amazing structures, and some questions remain unanswered to this day. There are inscriptions that explain these processes, which can be found in the texts, paintings, and walls of these ancient buildings.

– Organized Labor

Ancient Egyptians were so organized that their colossal projects became successful. The system of organized labor was efficiently applied, and in the construction of villages and houses, artisans were utilized on a massive scale. Even bakeries, granaries, and markets were mobilized to sustain the workers.

– Tools, Levers, and Simple Machines

Even during the time of the ancient Egyptians, machines like the lever, crane, and ramp were used to transport, erect, and mount the stonework for structures to augment the manual labor.

This was also another way to streamline the process. These are examples of construction equipment used by ancient Egyptians and are still being used in the present time. The sample tools were unearthed in the tombs, in old quarry sites, and from construction areas.

– Ship Design

During ancient times, Egyptians made use of the Nile River as a major transportation artery. Both importers and exporters of goods, Egyptians traded prominently in this area. The presence of ships that carry goods also became a popular means to bring in cultural and economic exchange.

They also made it a point to develop rope trusses to strengthen the beams of their ships when there are strong winds. Initially, Egyptians built small boats, but they later succeeded in constructing larger vessels, which can journey into the Mediterranean Sea.

– Glass Blowing

Advanced glass-working expertise was discovered by archeologists in different excavation points. The artifacts were crafted using brightly colored glass beads and were considered very expensive trade goods. These types of glassware are an advantage in Egyptian trading expeditions.

What Technology Was Used in Building the Pyramids?

Up to this time, the methods and technologies used by the ancient Egyptians to construct the pyramids remained a mystery. Researchers, Egyptologists, and engineers constantly search for answers to questions regarding these construction projects.

The accounts taken from Weni, the Egyptian Governor of the south, showed inscriptions detailing how he traveled to get the granite blocks used as false doors for these pyramids.

It also took into account the tremendous effort, energy, and resources needed to construct these gigantic monuments. Several documents also stated the difficulties and challenges in constructing the pyramids but only gave minute accounts of the technology used to make these structures.

The only common knowledge and most popular theory about building the pyramids is the use of a system of ramps. It is assumed that the ramps were built as each piece of the pyramid was raised.

It is believed that hydraulic pumps had been utilized on construction projects even during ancient times, and the Egyptians were all aware of the principle of a pump.

Some have written an account of the purpose of the ramps, which was a spiritual purpose in guiding the dead king’s soul to ascend to heaven. Other people see them simply as debris of construction. Up to this time, evidence has not been established to define its function or purpose.

Aside from the construction of the pyramids, hydraulic pumps had been used previously on other construction projects, and the ancient Egyptians technology showed good utilization of the principle of a pump.


Egypt is absolutely a land of wonders. You can’t ask for more if we talk about the height of Egypt’s achievements in science, math, engineering, medicine, and several other branches of knowledge.

It is fascinating to know how these people have developed their civilization and contributed to the advancement of other nations. The ancient Egyptians contributions span a wide range of technologies, from ink to farm equipment and construction tools, which became very useful in building the pyramids at Giza.

These technologies were then handed down from generation to generation, eventually becoming further enriched and improved to be suitable for the industrial scale of the present time.

Inventions have been very effective because they employed scientific principles and critical formulations to come up with the best results. Because of these achievements, the pharaohs made decisions to expand the areas of land for cultivation.

This milestone has marked the success of Egyptian farmers that led to Egypt being called the breadbasket of Rome for centuries.

Egyptian ingenuity marks an impressive legacy in world history. You are treading a winning time because our modern generation celebrates the creativity of the Egyptians that paved the way for an opportunity for modern people to live a convenient life.

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