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Encyclopaedia of the Orient

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The Coptic Church | Ancient Christian Church Since Apostle Mark

The Coptic Church, also known as the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, is an oriental Christian church in Egypt. According to ancient records, Mark,...

Mauritania | People, Language, Religion, & History

Located at the crossroads of sub-Saharan Africa and the Maghreb region, Mauritania shares most of its land area with the Great Sahara Desert. Thus,...

Mandeans: Ancient Mesopotamian Religious Group

Mandeans are an ancient religious group that first lived in southern Mesopotamia more than 2,000 years ago. Their rituals vaguely resemble Zoroastrian and Nestorian...

Islamism: A Force That Wants Revolutionary Transformation

In recent years, Islamism has become a powerful force that shapes the Muslim world. With the belief that current Islamic communities are stuck in a...

The Muslim Brotherhood Egypt: Surviving Repression

The Muslim Brotherhood Egypt, Arabic al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun, is a religiopolitical group. Scholar Hassan al-Banna established the group in 1928 in the eastern city of...

Lydians: The Rise of One of History’s Richest Civilizations

The Lydians lived in ancient Anatolia, and their land started at the Aegean sea and stretched eastward. They occupied the Cayster and Hermus river...

Why Is Golan Heights so Important to so Many People?

The Golan Heights refers to a fertile mesa in southwestern Syria with political and strategic importance, belying its size. Israel confiscated the Golan Heights...

The Crusaders: Causes and Goals of the Medieval Holy Wars

The crusaders were at the forefront of the holy wars in medieval times. To become a crusader, one had to take a vow, proposed by Pope...

The Beys: Original Rulers of the Ottoman Empire

The Beys were the first rulers of the Ottoman Empire. The provinces or regions which they controlled had the name beylik or governorate. They equated...

Mazdakism | Offshoot of Zoroastrianism

Mazdakism is an ancient Iranian religion that rose in popularity during the 5th century. It had a dualistic cosmology and worldview revolving on light and...

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