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Encyclopaedia of the Orient

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Enuma Elish | Babylonian Take on the Creation Story

Of all the ancient writings in cuneiform, few have garnered general interest as the Babylonian creation myth Enuma Elish. Aside from linguistic studies about it,...

Devhsirme | A tradition of Elite Training & Slavery

Devshirme or devşirme was introduced by the Ottoman Empire, forcing Christian children to Islam. During the 14th century, the Ottoman Empire began its expansion...

The Yazidi Religion: History, People and Origin

The Yazidi religion, also spelled as Yezidi, is a monotheistic religion that originated in Northern Iraq. While often misunderstood because of its beliefs, the...

Saladin: Conqueror of the Kingdom of Jerusalem

Saladin was one of Egypt and Syria’s greatest Sultan and most celebrated Muslim heroes. Saladin was known for his great military prowess and for defeating...

Mesopotamian Civilization: A Brief History

The story of writing, astronomy, and law begins in one place, the Mesopotamian Civilization. Mesopotamia came from the Greek for middle—mesos—and river—potamos—and literally means a...

Iran-Iraq War: The 8th-Year War that Killed Millions

The Iran Iraq War, also known as the First Persian Gulf War, was an eight-year war from 1980 to 1988. It claimed millions of...

The Assyrian People: Ancient Civilization, Ancient Power

Assyrian people were an ancient society who lived in the northern part of Mesopotamia, now modern-day Iraq, and parts of Iran, Syria, and Kuwait. Assyrians...

Arabs: Bedouins of the Desert

Arabs in simple terms refer to people whose native language is Arabic. In 1946, the Arab League defined an Arab as follows: “An Arab is...

Abbasid: Arab Dynasty and Islamic Empire

The Abbasid is an Arabic dynasty that ruled over the Islamic Empire from 750 A.D. until 1258. It was the longest and most influential...

Algeria: A History of Struggle and Independence

The state of Algeria is a relatively modern creation. It has a long history that connects the Ottoman Turks and the French empire. In this...

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