Code of Hammurabi

                    Full text in translation Collection of laws and edicts of King Hammurabi of Babylonia dating to the middle of the 18th century BCE. The laws in this collection...

Waqf

Arabic: waqf In Islam, the system a specific religious institution revenues from property. Such institutions are usually mosques, religious schools or social institutions, like hospitals. A waqfs would normally...

Baybars

Arabic: 'az-zāhiri rukn 'ad-dīn baybars 'al-bunduqdārī (1223?-1277) Mamluk sultan 1260-1277. Baybars, a man of unique qualities, was able to rise from the inferior position of a common slave to...

Persian Gulf

Persian: khalīj-e fārs Arabic: 'al-khalīj 'al-¢arabiyy Gulf bordering Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Oman, with an area of 240,000 kmē, a maximum depth of 90 meters, and an average depth is...

Rabat

Capital in blue and white Rabat Morocco Rabat opens up only slowly to you. On the first day of your first arrival, you will discover that...

Hurghada

The long stretch Hurghada was once just a tiny fisher village, with a location that seldom brought strangers here. Even in the late 1970s, this...

Greek Orthodox Church

Greek Christian church, with a presence in the Middle East going back to the earliest period in Christian history. The Greek Orthodox (see the article on the term 'Orthodox')...

Husayn

Arabic: husayn (Madina c.626- Karbala 680) The central symbolic religious figure of Shi'i Islam; the third Imam; the second son of Ali. Husayn's historical importance was limited before his martyrdom at Karbala in 680,...

Irbil

Arabic: 'irbīl Other spellings: Erbil; Arbil   Irbil, Iraq. City in northern Iraq with around 990,000 inhabitants (2005 estimate). It is the capital of the Irbil governorate. From 1991-1996, it was the...

Saddam Hussein

Arabic: saddām hussayn         Saddam Hussein during the trials that ended with a death penalty.   A younger Saddam Hussein, demonstrating his strength and vigour, about to swim across the Euphrates river. (1937-2006)...

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