Oud

Arabic: 'al-¢ūd Excerpt 1: Nubian Oud music Excerpt 2: Nubian Oud music The Oud is a highly ornate instrument made of wood, with six double strings, with a...

Ali al-Hadi

View of Samarra, Iraq from the spiral minaret of the Friday mosque. Two Shi'i shrines dominate the city; the coloured over the tomb of 10th Imam, Ali al-Hadi, the...

Rabat

Capital in blue and white Rabat Morocco Rabat opens up only slowly to you. On the first day of your first arrival, you will discover that...

Marduk

The Etemenanki ziggurat at Babylon with Marduk's shrine on top. The supreme god of Babylonian and Assyrian religion, originally the god of thunderstorms with the Amonites. His period as a great god...

Hosni Mubarak

Arabic: husniy muhammadi mubarak Hosni Mubarak Photo: David Rubinger/Corbis Young Mubarak, ca. 1950. Mubarak next to President Anwar as-Sadat moments before Sadat is killed in 1981. US President visits Egypt in 2009....

Baybars

Arabic: 'az-zāhiri rukn 'ad-dīn baybars 'al-bunduqdārī (1223?-1277) Mamluk sultan 1260-1277. Baybars, a man of unique qualities, was able to rise from the inferior position of a common slave to...

Mosque

Arabic: masjid (small)  jamā¢a (large) Contents 1. History and Development a. Conversion from churches b. The first 80 years c. Introduction of the minaret d. Extended functions 2. Administration 3. Rules for mosque Mosque of Hassan 2. Casablanca, Morocco. Photo: Justin Clements. Minarets rising over the...

Qarmatians

Arabic: qarmatī (sing.) qarāmita (pl.) Shi'i Islamic sect with much power from around 880 until around 1080, although it continued for still some time in Bahrain. The Qarmatians had a belief...

Umm Kulthum

Arabic: 'umm kulthūm Other spellings: Oum, Omm; Kalsoum, Kalthum, Kalthoum, Kolthoum Incorrect spellings: Khalthoum Music example Fakarouni (live, unknown date) (Tamayya z-Zahira, Dakhliyya 1904- Cairo 1975) Egyptian singer and musician. Umm Kulthum is the most popular and treasured...

Sargon

Mesopotamia / Kings / Also commonly used: Sargon of Akkad and Sargon the Great Akkad of Sargon King of ancient Mesopotamia, reigning ca. 2334-2279 BCE, 55 years. His byname was Sargon of Akkad, the kingdom...

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