Masada

Ancient fortress and a national symbol for Israel. Masada has a legendary status in Israeli mentality. Here the fight for Israeli and Jewish independence was...

PLO – Palestine Liberation Organization

Arabic: munazzamat 'at-tahrīr filistīnīya The organization that has worked as the official representative for the Palestinian people, and is now the leading force of Palestine. PLO is...

Fatimids

Arabic: 'al-fātimiyūn Caliphs Ubayd Allah 909-934 al-Qa'im 934-946 al-Mansur 946-953 al-Aziz 975-996 al-Hakim 996-1021 al-Zahir 1021-1036 al-Mustansir 1036-1094 al-Musta'li 1094-1101 al-Amir 1101-1130 al-Hafiz 1130-1149 al-Zafir 1149-1154 al-Fa'iz 1154-1160 al-Adid 1160-1171 Isma'ili Shi'i Islamic dynasty of caliphs, ruling over large parts of the Muslim world from the early 10th century until the late 12th century. The Fatimids claimed to be descendants...

Saddam Hussein

Arabic: saddām hussayn         Saddam Hussein during the trials that ended with a death penalty.   A younger Saddam Hussein, demonstrating his strength and vigour, about to swim across the Euphrates river. (1937-2006)...

United Arab Emirates History Timeline

History The earliest traces of settlement in the UAE region goes back to the 6th millennium BCE, the people being herders and craftsmen. Middle 3rd millennium:...

Ottoman Empire – Rise and fall, explanations

Contents INTRODUCTION 1. Organization 2. Rulers 3. Demography and Culture 4. Rise and Fall: Explanations 5. History Ottoman Empire: The Topkapi palace in Istanbul. While it is difficult to find exact reasons for the rise of the...

Tigris

Arabic: dijla Turkish: Dicle Tigris river. Photo: Cordaiy Photo Library Ltd./Corbis,   Tigris river through central Baghdad. River of the Middle East, 1,850 km long. It begins in Turkey, 432 km, forms...

Almoravids

Arabic: 'al-murābitūn             The Great Mosque of Tlemcen, Algeria.       The Almoravid koubba in Marrakech, Morocco. Rulers of the lands of Morocco, Mauritania, northern Algeria, large parts of Spain, and southern Portugal, through the 11th...

Ulama

Arabic: ¢ulamā' The term in Islam meaning the community of learned men. The direct translation would be 'the ones possessing knowledge'. Ulama is a plural term, and the...

Imam

Arabic: 'imām Contents 1. In the mosque 2. Shi'i Islam. The highest leader 3. Shi'i Islam. Modern reinterpretations 4. Sunni Islam. Caliphs 5. Sunni Islam. Eminence Imams of Twelver Shi'ism Ali 656-661 Hassan 661-669 Husayn 669-680 Ali Zayn al-Abidin 680-712/3 Muhammad al-Baqir 713-743 Jafar as-Sadiq 743-765 Musa al-Kazim 765-799 Ali ar-Rida 765-818 Muhammad at-Taqi 818-835 Ali...

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