Other spelling: Hamedan
City in western Iran with 440,000 inhabitants (2005 estimate) at an elevation of 1,877 metres above sea level, on a wide plain of the Qareh Su River. Hamadan is the capital of the Hamadan Province with 1.75 million inhabitants (2005 estimate) and an area of 19,547 km².
The region of Hamandan is a large producer of grain and fruits. Hamadan’s rugs are higly valued, and ranked only second to the ones of Kerman. Hamadan also serves as a an important trade centre on the main Teheran–Baghdad highway. The city of Hamadan and its infrastructure is little developed compared to other cities of Iran with a similar size and importance. It has several bazaars and mosques. Hamadan has several tombs of special interest, the two most famous being the one said to be that of the biblical Mordecai and Esther, and that of the Islamic philosopher-physician Avicenna.
Hamadan has a climate of long and fairly hard winters, while summers are pleasant and not as hot as the rest of Iran.
It is generally believed that the site of Hamadan corresponds to the one of Ectabana, the capital of the ancient Medes (Ectabana is its Greek name, the Medes called it Agbatana), and Ait Daiukki of the Assyrians.
Hamadan has a large minority of Turks, and a small group of Jews.
2nd millennium: The site of Hamadan is settled.
641/2: Conquered by Arab Muslims. They made it into a provincial capital.
12th century: The Seljuq sultan makes Hamadan his capital. It would remain the capital for 50 years.
1220: Destroyed by the Mongols.
1386: Partly destroyed by Timur Lenk, who had its inhabitants killed.
17th century: Restored.
1918: Hamadan comes under Persian control.
1980’s: Hamadan is partly destroyed during the Iran-Iraq War.