Lajash156-167 CESanatruk 1167-190 CEAbd Samia190-200 CESanatruk 2200-241 CE
Ruined city of the Parthian Empire, now in northern Iraq, 80 km southwest of modern Mosul.
Hatra flourished as a trading centre in its time, as caravans passed through this region, on their way from Mesopotamia, Arabia and Persia in the east and the Levant, Asia Minor, Europe and North Africa in the west. Together with Palmyra (now Syria), it was one of the main stops for the caravans.
Hatra was throughout its history allied with larger powers, but represented a fairly small kingdom of its own, bordered by the two rivers of Euphrates and Tigris. Despite its small size, the region was well placed and easy to govern, obvious reasons for its prosperity.
The Hatrans were known as good soldiers, and Hatra was able to repel many attacks by the Romans. They even developed a bomb, which was hurled by a mangonel catapult, that propelled large stones together with flaming petrol and arrows at the enemy.
All functions of Hatra took place inside two near-circular walls. The outer wall was about 8 km long, 2 km in diameter, and made from clay. A deep trench, 300 to 500 metres wide, ran between the outer and the inner wall. The inner wall was made from stone with a height of 2 metres. It had as many as 163 defensive towers,— the span between them being never more than 35 metres. There were 4 gates, easy to defend, which led into the inner city.
In the centre of the circle were the several temples of the city. The temple area was about 12,000 m² large. The most prominent of the temples was the Great Temple, which in its full expanse measured 440 metres from west to east, 320 metres from north to south and 30 metres in height.
Due to the many peoples passing through, setting up companies and representations in the city, Hatra allowed the coexistence of several different religions. Temples were built for the different gods, and Hatra soon developed into an important religious centre. This made Hatra famous in its time, and it was called Bet Elaha, in Aramaic, or “House of God.”
Among the gods revered here, were Nergal of Mesopotamian religion, Hermes of the Greek religion, Atargatis of the Aramean religion, Al-Lat and Shamiyah of the Arabian religion. Other temples were dedicated to Shahiru, Mithra, Maran, Shiu and Saqaya. However, it could be concluded that a syncretistic religion developed in Hatra, uniting the gods revered in the city into one pantheon. The main element of Hatran religion became the eagle, and there are numerous eagle decorations around the city.
The architecture and artwork of Hatra had its origin in Arabia, Assyria, Greece and the Roman Empire, and the city represents the most complete of any Parthian city preserved, and is the only site in Iraq included in UNESCO’s World Heritage Properties.
The language of Hatra was at least in the latter half of its history, Aramaic. The Aramaic alphabet, similar to the one used in Palmyra, was used throughout the history of Hatra.
Most of the marbles statues and sculptures are now harboured in the Iraqi Museum in Baghdad and the Museum of Mosul.
7th century BCE: With the collapse of the Assyrian Empire, Arab tribes migrate into the northern region of Mesopotamia, settling in the area of future Hatra.
3rd century: Hatra is believed to have been founded as a city in the Seleucid kingdom.
2nd century: Hatra flourishes and enters into its richest period, as a semi-autonomous state subject to the Parthian Empire.
116: Hatra is attacked and put under siege by Roman forces.
Around 156 CE: An Arabian dynasty of kings is formed in Hatra, starting with the son of the chief Nasr, Lajash.
198: Hatra is attacked and put under siege by Roman forces.
3rd century: Hatra makes great advances into territory controlled by the Persians.
238: Hatra defeats the Persians at the battle of Shahrazoor.
241 CE: Hatra is razed by the Sassanians. According to the legend, this happened after the daughter of the king of Hatra betrayed her city for love of the Sassanian ruler, Shapur 1.
1907: Excavations of Hatra are begun by German archaeologists. Investigations would continue for several decades.
1985: Hatra is designated a UNESCO World Heritage site.
1990’s: A large restoration project is initiated by the Iraqi government.