Arabichusniy muhammadi mubarak

Hosni Mubarak
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Photo: David Rubinger/Corbis
Young Mubarak, ca. 1950.

Mubarak next to President Anwar as-Sadat moments before Sadat is killed in 1981.
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Mubarak next to President Anwar as-Sadat moments before Sadat is killed in 1981.
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US President visits Egypt in 2009. Here he is received by Hosni Mubarak at the presidential palace in Cairo. Photo: Muhammad Ghafari.

(1928-) Egyptian president 1981-2011, and military leader. He had several military positions under President Anwar as-Sadat, like Deputy Minister of War, and was one of Sadat’s closest advisors.

Mubarak declared on his inaugurations as president in 1981 that he would follow the political line of Sadat, which had been one of reconciliation with the West, and peace with Israel within internationally recognized borders.

His politics have involved economic reforms, allowing more political freedom, like letting the Muslim Brotherhood into the parliament, and giving more freedom to the press. Internationally, he has focused on neutrality between the great powers and placed his efforts on improving relations with other Arab states.

The greatest challenge for Mubarak has been the militant Islamists, which have hurt the vital tourism sector through dramatic terror attacks on Western tourists.

Still, the Islamists come not only as an ideological challenge but as the best-organized expression of the hardship and difficult economic conditions that most Egyptians face. Mubarak’s methods have been more flexible than what has been the case in certain other Arab countries, like Syria and Tunisia, and over the more recent years has Egypt seen noticeable economic growth.

Mubarak supported the UN sanctions against Iraq, after the invasion and occupation of Kuwait in 1990, and Egypt participated in the Gulf War with 38,500 troops and has been part of the post-war efforts to stabilize the Gulf region.

Mubarak’s government advised the Palestinians during the talks in Norway in 1993, leading to the Oslo Agreement of the same year.

Mubarak promised with the presidential elections in 1993, that that would be his last term as president, but eventually, he changed his mind. With the elections in 1999, a growing force of intellectual voted against him, as a protest against the outcome of his politics, with significant unemployment and closer ties with Israel.

The 2005 presidential elections were considered fair, but campaigns of opposing candidates had been given very little room in the media and many were close to unknown by most Egyptians, both regarding their personalities as well as political programs.

1928: Born into a higher middle-class family.
1940’s: Receives a military education, attending schools in both Egypt (National Military Academy and Air Force Academy) and Soviet Union (Frunze General Staff Academy).
1950: Joins the Air Force.
1969 Is appointed Air Force Chief of Staff.
1972: Appointed Commander in Chief of the Air Force.
1975: Is appointed Vice President.
1981 October 13: Is elected new President, one week after the assassination of Sadat.
1987 October: Is re-elected, president. Results show that he has received 97,1% of the votes; there were no opposing candidates.
1993: Mubarak is re-elected the second time in 1993, and then he declared that he would not run for the presidency in the elections in 1999.
1999 September 26: Despite his promise from the last elections, Mubarak runs for the presidency in the new elections, being the only candidate.
2005 September 7: In the new presidential elections, Mubarak receives 88.6% of the votes. The runner up candidate gets 7.3%.
2011: Heavy, but peaceful demonstrations inspired by the Tunisian Revolution, mainly in Cairo, proves the fragility of Mubarak’s power. He is on February 13 removed from power by the Egyptian army.


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